So, I’ll say learning is going to be different for everyone (but I’m sure you realize this). I’m 3 years into my Scrum Master role and I’ve been lucky enough to have been offered all the options you listed above.
I found the yearly conferences (Agile2018 “like”) to be invaluable. The options for learning range from beginner to advanced, there are straight talks, interactive learning, experience reports, etc. Then there is the incredible opportunities to network and build relationships with the Agile community that can offer the opportunity to continue to grow after the conference is over.
I’ve also attended regional conferences, and while they have great value, they don’t have the range that the yearly conference will give. Also, while you’re increasing your network “regionally” you miss the opportunity of meeting all the different attendees and speakers that a larger yearly conference can provide.
Higher level certifications can be great for those people that need that classroom learning method. However, while you may come away with some new theory, there is not as many people there that may help you apply it in the long run (other than your instructor). At a conference you learn something new and can immediately collaborate with people of all different experience levels - some who may have already implemented what you’ve just learned about - it helps to really send the message you just learned home. Don’t get me wrong, there is great value in certification courses but if it’s one or the other and your team’s never experienced an Agile 2018 “like” conference before, I’d suggest you send them and let them get advanced certifications next year
To @chrismurman @bradstokes point, I’d be no where if I hadn’t reached out to my local agile community and found other enthusiasts to lean on. But that shouldn’t be a strain on your training budget